The article shows the problems associated with scientific activities in the Russian Federation. In the article it’s made a comprehensive analysis of the support the scientific institutes and scientists from the side of state and municipal authorities on the example of such countries as Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bulgaria, Great Britain, Germany, Greece, Denmark, Egypt, Israel, India, Iran, Spain, Italy, Kazakhstan, Canada, Latvia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Romania, USA, Ukraine, France, Czech Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, South Korea and Japan.